Because organizational learning and effective knowledge management are sources of performance improvements in organizations, a greater understanding of these topics has the potential to advance practice as well as theory. Keywords: organizational learning , learning curves , knowledge management , knowledge transfer , organizational memory , creativity , innovation.
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New Courses Development. Consumer Behavior. Safety Procedures. Customer Relationship. Floor Lay out. Impression Management. Raw Materials. Personal Effectiveness. Time and Motion Framework. Self Academic Up-gradation. Job Description. It would be a challenging task to define and measure knowledge, especially at intra-organizational level of analysis as Hargadon, most of the time, Researchers focus upon the cognitions of organizational members McGrath, ; Huff, to ascertain organizational knowledge.
As described earlier that human repositories are the most significant one that not only store knowledge but by the passage of time revise it and incorporate it with required and due changes and amendments. Intellectual capital IC , the knowledge assets, has become one of the most-sought after business management subjects; it correspondingly regulates success or failure of modern enterprises.
It must be kept in mind that knowledge retention is fundamentally focusing upon those specific areas of knowledge that is at risk of departure and loss Holsapple, ; Snyder, ; Snyder C. Floating knowledge repositores are even stronger in an organization and members joining new groups and coming back to their mother groups leaves a knowledge gap and this gap is to be filled through continuous knowledge upgradation keeping corresponding memebers on board.
Knowledge Transfer. Movement of members between groups is a fundamental way of intra-organizational knowledge transfer Rothwell, ; Allen, , studies show that sub units posses implicit specialized knowledge and their interaction provides ample opportunity in transfering this knowledge from one unit to another Huber, , inter-unit link and network enables unites to learn from one another and paves the way towards accessing required knowledge Hansen M.
All the organizational units are interlinked with one another being the part of an organization but their active part, place and prminance in overall processing captiones their abilities to acquire and absorb new knowledge, rather acquire new knowledge from external sources and transfer it accordingly to other units Tsai, , this units enjoys central position and due to its central positioning it emits and absorb knowledge at the same time. This positioning often creates an imbalance in the process of knowledge transfer as the central unit needs specific resources for gaining external knowledge and innovativeness but this new knowledge cannot be disseminated to other units if proper relationship is not there and unevenness of different units hamper the desired level needed to accept new knowledge Szulanski, It is for sure that central unit s in an organization bring s innvoation, new knowledge and ideas into organization and become s starmark for other units; since that, because of their unique positioning, there are ample chances to come across new knowledge areas and by developing a socialized network intra-organizaitonal knowledge ransfer can generate more economic value and strengths Coleman J.
Collective capability of an organization has been emphasized so much so far, but, the notion of individuality is even a matter or related concern as discussed above, the core reason is that when we talk of implicit knowledge then collectivism has no place here and specialized knowledge rests always within an individual, that is why intra-organizational knowledge transfer needs to give attention to individuals Grant, , individual uniformity Felin, and individual behavior Gupta, , in another study it was focussed that individual motivation, capability and opportunity are the key considerable factors Argote , in intra-organizational knowledge transfer process and in the case of implicit knowledge it is something must be comprehended at the first place.
In addition to it, the prioir experience and gained knowledge also affects the knowledge transfer process when we talk of individual; the experience gained in a task generates new knowledge Cohen, and this knowledge helps individual in preforming same or similar task with more efficeincy and precision as it relates basically to member-task relationship. As discussed earlier similarity in units helps the knowledge trasfer process Darr, within an organization, as compared to diss-similar groups as both the group memebers passes through certain or same experiences in different context and conditions and this similarity of repeated experience enables them to learn form one another experiences.
Intra-Organizational knowledge management has become a subject of sheer importance and increasing competitiveness, operating cost issues, mergers, uncertainities, emerging risk factors have made it even more core, central and significant. The commodity of kings in this 21 st century is not land, capital or assets but knowledge and the fast track progress pace can only be ascertained if knowledge generation, codification, retention and transfer is undertaken in a very well knitted, documented and systematized manner. Existing issues and questions. Knowledge is recognized as an initial and critical source of power that derives an organization and appears rare in the general working envronment Hackney, so should the process of knowledge transfer be kept secret Desouza, from shareholders, all employees etc.
A sense of competition among different sub units has become a major challenge in managing intra-organizational knowledge and its trasnfer Kogut B. For the better utility and usage of knowledge Drucker P. The process of extracting knowledge from the knowledge workers Kreiner, is indipensible when we discuss tacit knowledge but the documented system of collecting this knowledge is in its very initial phases that pictures the knowledge loss.
Knowledge transfer between groups via personnel rotation: Effects of social identity and knowledge quality.
What Is Organizational Learning and Why it's Important?
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